Karina Reiss y Sucharit Bhakdi 9ª Parte

Doctora Karina Reiss y Doctor Sucharit Bhakdi. Corona. ¿Falsa alarma? Hechos y cifras


(1) “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Weekly Epidemiological Update and Weekly Operational Update,” World Health Organization, last accessed August 26, 2020, https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports.

(2) Chih-Cheng Lai et al., “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): The Epidemic and the Challenges,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 55, no. 3 (March 2020): 105924, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924.

(3) Catrin Sohrabi et al., “World Health Organization Declares Global Emergency: A Review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19),”International Journal of Surgery 76 (April 2020): 71–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034.

(4) Shuo Su et al., “Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses,” Trends in Microbiology 24, no. 6 (June 2016): 490–502, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2016.03.003.

(5) Jie Cui, Fang Li, and Zheng-Li Shi, “Origin and Evolution of Pathogenic Coronaviruses,” Nature Reviews Microbiology 17 (2019): 181–92,https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9.

(6) Yanis Roussel et al., “SARS-CoV-2: Fear Versus Data,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 55, no. 5 (May 2020): 105947, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105947.

(7) David M. Patrick et al., “An Outbreak of Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection and Serological Cross-Reactivity with SARS Coronavirus,”Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 17, no. 6 (November–December 2006): 330–36, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095096.

(8) Kelvin K. W. To et al., “From SARS to Coronavirus to Novel Animal and Human Coronaviruses,” Journal of Thoracic Disease 5, no. S2 (August 2013): S103–8, http://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.06.02.

(9) “SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome),” National Health Service (UK), last reviewed October 24, 2019, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/sars.

(10) “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV),” World Health Organization, https://www.who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en.

(11) “COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic,” Worldometer, https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus.

(12) Benjamin Reuter, “Coronavirus lässt in Italien Ärzte verzweifeln—Entscheidungen wie in Kriegszeiten,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), March 12, 2020, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/drohen-in-deutschlanditalienischeverhaeltnisse-coronavirus-laesst-in-italienaerzteverzweifeln-entscheidungen-wie-in-kriegszeiten/25632790.html.

(13) Ciro Indolfi and Carmen Spaccarotella, “The Outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy: Fighting the Pandemic,” JACC: Case Reports 2, no. 9 (July 2020): 1414–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccas.2020.03.012.

(14) Max Roser et al., “Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19),” Our World in Data, last updated August 26, 2020, https://ourworldindata.org/mortality-risk-covid.

(15) “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation Report—61,” World Health Organization, March 20, 2020, https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200321-sitrep-61-covid-19.pdf.

(16) Michael Day, “COVID-19: Four Fifths of Cases Are Asymptomatic, China Figures Indicate,” BMJ 369, (April 2020):m1375, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1375.

(17) “Regeln zur Durchführung der ärztlichen Leichenschau,” AWMF Online (Germany), revised January to October2017, https://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/054-002l_S1_Regeln-zur-Durchfuehrung-der-aerztlichen-Leichenschau_2018-02_01.pdf.

(18) Audrey Giraud-Gatineau et al., “Comparison of Mortality Associated with Respiratory Viral Infections between December 2019 and March 2020 with That of the Previous Year in Southeastern France,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases 96 (July 2020): 154–56, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.001.

(19) Victor M. Corman et al., “Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by Real-Time RT-PCR,” Eurosurveillance 25, no. 3 (January 2020): 2000045, https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045.

(20) Sonja Gurris, “Corona-Tests werden Geheimwaffe,” n-tv (Cologne), March 30, 2020, https://www.n-tv.de/panorama/Corona- Tests-werden-Geheimwaffe-article21678629.html.

(21) Christian Drosten, Twitter post, April 13, 2020, 4:42 p.m., https://twitter.com/c_drosten/status/1249800091164192771.

(22) Australian Associated Press, “WHO Rejects Tanzania Claim Tests Faulty,” Examiner (Launceston), May 8, 2020, https://www.examiner.com.au/story/6749732/who-rejects-tanzania-claim-tests-faulty.

(23) Yafang Li et al., “Stability Issues of RT-PCR Testing of SARS-CoV-2 for Hospitalized Patients Clinically Diagnosed with COVID-19,” Journal of Medical Virology 92, no. 7 (July 2020): 903–8, https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25786.

(24) Gurris, “Corona-Tests werden Geheimwaffe.”

(25) Ines Nastali, “Police Intervenes on Quarantined Mein Schiff 3,” Safety at Sea, May 6, 2020, https://safetyatsea.net/news/2020/police-intervenes-on-quarantined-mein-schiff-3-2.

(26) “Wenig Infektionen beim Charité-Personal,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Berlin), May 13, 2020, https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/112809/Wenig-Infektionen-beim-Charite-Personal.

(27) John P. A. Ioannidis, “Coronavirus Disease 2019: The Harms of Exaggerated Information and Non-Evidence-Based Measures,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation 50, no. 4 (April 2020): e13222, https://doi.org/10.1111/eci.13222.

(28) Sucharit Bhakdi, open letter to Angela Merkel, March 26, 2020, PDF available to download until March 31, 2021, https://c.gmx.net/@824224682608695698/cI1TagSeQmi0WlXK-m8vWA.

(29) Patrick Gensing and Markus Grill, “40 Prozent mehr Tests in Deutschland,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), May 6, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/investigativ/corona-tests-rki-101.html.

(30) Julia Bernewasser, “Das sind die ersten Lehren der Heinsberg-Studie,” Der Tagesspeigel (Berlin), April 9, 2020, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/zwischenergebnis-zurcoronavirus-uebertragung-das-sind-die-erstenlehrenderheinsberg-studie/25730138.html.

(31) Paula Schneider, “‘Unwissenschaftlich’: Statistikerin zerlegt Heinsberg-Studie, auf die sich Laschet stützt,” Focus (Munich), April 15, 2020,https://www.focus.de/gesundheit/news/hoffe-dass-wir-darausnur-wenig-ueber-corona-lernen-statistikerinzerlegtheinsbergstudie- keine-transparenz-kein-wissenschaftlicher-standard_id_11881853.html.

(32) Hendrik Streeck et al., “Infection Fatality Rate of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a German Community with a Super-Spreading Event,” preprint,medRxiv, June 2, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.04.20090076.

(33) “Field Briefing: Diamond Princess COVID-19 Cases,” National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Japan), February 19, 2020, https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/en/2019-ncov-e/9407-covid-dpfe-01.html.

(34) Kenji Mizumoto et al., “Estimating the Asymptomatic Proportion of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cases on Board the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020,” Eurosurveillance 25, no. 10 (March 2020): 20000180, https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180.

(35) Tara John, “Iceland Lab’s Testing Suggests 50% of Coronavirus Cases Have No Symptoms,” CNN, April 3, 2020, https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/01/europe/iceland-testing-coronavirus-intl/index.html.

(36) Rongrong Yang, Xien Gui, and Yong Xiong, “Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Asymptomatic vs Symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China,” JAMA Network Open 3, no. 5 (May 2020):

e2010182, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.10182.

(37) “Erster Todesfall in Schleswig-Holstein,” Der Spiegel, March 17, 2020, https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/coronaviruserster-todesfall-in-schleswig-holstein-a-6db5f0b0-b662-45b0-bdb4-603684d4dc92.

(38) Bettina Mittelacher, “Mediziner: Alle Corona-Toten in Hamburg waren vorerkrankt,” Berliner Morgenpost, April 27, 2020, https://www.morgenpost.de/vermischtes/article228994571/Rechtsmediziner-Alle-Corona-TotenhattenVorerkrankungen.html.

(39) Dominic Wichmann et al., “Autopsy Findings and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study,” Annals of Internal Medicine 173, no. 4 (August 2020): 268–77, https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-2003.

(40) Nikita Jolkver, “Coronavirus: Was die Toten über COVID-19 verraten,” DW Akademie (Bonn), April 30, 2020, https://p.dw.com/p/3baZF.

(41) SARS-CoV-2 Surveillance Group, Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Patients Dying in Italy, report based on available data on July 9, 2020, https://www.epicentro.iss.it/en/coronavirus/bollettino/Report-COVID-2019_9_july_2020.pdf.

(42) O. Haferkamp and H. Matthys, “Grippe und Lungenembolien,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 95, no. 51 (1970):2560–63, https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1108874.

(43) Sarah Newey, “Why Have So Many Coronavirus Patients Died in Italy?,” Telegraph, March 23, 2020, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/have-many-coronavirus-patients-died-italy.

(44) Gregory Beals, “Official Coronavirus Death Tolls Are Only an Estimate, and That Is a Problem,” NBC News, April 15, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/official-coronavirus-death-tolls-are-only-estimate-problem-n1183756.

(45) Karolina Meta Beisel, “Warum Belgien die höchste Todesrate weltweit hat,” Tages-Anzeiger (Zurich), April 22, 2020, https://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/warum-belgien-die-hoechstetodesrate-weltweit-hat-825753123788.

(46) John P. A. Ioannidis, Cathrine Axfors, and Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, “Population-Level COVID-19 Mortality Risk for Non-Elderly Individuals Overall and for Non-Elderly Individuals without Underlying Diseases in Pandemic Epicenters,” Environmental Research 188 (September 2020): 109890, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109890.

(47) “GrippeWeb,” Robert Koch-Instituts, https://grippeweb.rki.de.

(48) “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation Report—46,” World Health Organization, March 6, 2020, https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200306-sitrep-46-covid-19.pdf.

(49) “Häufig gestellte Fragen und Antworten zur Grippe,” Robert Koch-Instituts, updated January 30, 2019, https://www.rki.de/SharedDocs/FAQ/Influenza/FAQ_Liste.html.

(50) “30 000 Tote—die kann’s auch bei saisonaler Grippe geben,” Ärzte-Zeitung (Neu-Isenburg), September 3, 2009, https://www.aerztezeitung.de/Medizin/30000-Tote-die-kannsauch-bei-saisonaler-Grippe-geben-371174.html.

(51) “Grippewelle war tödlichste in 30 Jahren,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Berlin), September 30, 2019, https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/106375/Grippewellewar-toedlichste-in-30-Jahren.

(52) “Gesundheitsministerin erklärt Grippewelle 2018 in Bayern für beendet,” Augsburger Allgemeine, May 10, 2018, https://www.augsburger-allgemeine.de/wissenschaft/Gesundheitsministerin-erklaert-Grippewelle-2018-in- Bayernfuerbeendet-id42750551.html.

(53) World Health Organization, “Up to 650 000 People Die of Respiratory Diseases Linked to Seasonal Flu Each Year,” news release, December 13, 2017, https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2017/flu/en.

(54) Euronews, “Coronavirus in Deutschland: Sterberate steigt, RKI erwartet zweite welle,” Euronews (Lyon), May 5, 2020, https://de.euronews.com/2020/05/05/coronavirus-in-deutschland-sterberate-steigt-rki-erwartet-zweite-welle.

(55) Silvia Stringhini et al., “Repeated Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies in a Population-Based Sample from Geneva, Switzerland,” preprint, medRxiv, May 6, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.02.20088898.

(56) Asako Doi et al., “Estimation of Seroprevalence of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Using Preserved Serum at an Outpatient Setting in Kobe, Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study,” preprint, medRxiv, May 5, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079822.

(57) Alberto L. Garcia-Basteiro et al., “Seroprevalence of Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 Among Health Care Workers in a Large Spanish Reference Hospital,” preprint, medRxiv, May 2, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.27.20082289.

(58) “Coronavirus: los primeros datos de seroprevalencia estiman que un 5% de la población ha estado contagiada, con variabilidad según provincias,” Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Gobierno de España, May 13, 2020, https://www.isciii.es/Noticias/Noticias/Paginas/Noticias/PrimerosDatosEstudioENECOVID19.aspx.

(59) Kieran Corcoran, “A Test of 200 People Just outside Boston Found That 32% Had Been Exposed to the Coronavirus, Compared to an Official Rate of 2%,” Business Insider, April 19, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/coronavirustest- 200-chelsea-massachusetts-finds-32-percent-exposed-2020-4.

(60) John Ioannidis, “The Infection Fatality Rate of COVID-19 Inferred from Seroprevalence Data,” preprint, medRxiv, July 14, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.13.20101253.

(61) Maryam Shakiba et al., “Seroprevalence of COVID-19 Virus Infection in Guilan Province, Iran,” preprint, medRxiv, May 1, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244.

(62) Eran Bendavid et al., “COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California,” preprint, medRxiv, posted April 30, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463.

(63) Christian Erikstrup et al., “Estimation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Fatality Rate by Real-Time Antibody Screening of Blood Donors,” Clinical Infectious Diseases ciaa849 (June 2020): https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa849.

(64) Fadoua Balabdaoui and Dirk Mohr, “Age-Stratified Model of the COVID-19 Epidemic to Analyze the Impact of Relaxing Lockdown Measures: Nowcasting and Forecasting for Switzerland,” preprint, medRxiv, May 13, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.08.20095059.

(65) “Preliminary Results of USC-LA County COVID-19 Study Released,” University of Southern California, April 20, 2020, https://pressroom.usc.edu/preliminary-results-of-usc-la-county-covid-19-study-released.

(66) Lionel Roques et al., “Using Early Data to Estimate the Actual Infection Fatality Ratio from COVID-19 in France,” Biology 9, no. 5 (May 2020): 97, https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9050097.

(67) Carson C. Chow et al., “Global Prediction of Unreported SARS-CoV2 Infection from Observed COVID-19 Cases,” preprint, medRxiv, May 5, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.29.20083485.

(68) Siuli Mukhopadhyay and Debraj Chakraborty, “Estimation of Undetected COVID-19 Infections in India,” preprint, medRxiv, May 3, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.20.20072892.

(69) Robert Verity et al., “Estimates of the Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Model-Based Analysis,” Lancet: Infectious Diseases 20, no. 6 (June 2020): 669–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7.

(70) Kenji Mizumoto, Katsushi Kagaya, and Gerardo Chowell, “Early Epidemiological Assessment of the Transmission Potential and Virulence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China, January–February, 2020,” BMC Medicine 18 (2020): article 217, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01691-x.

(71) Timothy W. Russell et al., “Estimating the Infection and Case Fatality Ratio for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Using Age-Adjusted Data from the Outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship, February 2020,” Eurosurveillance 25, no. 12 (March 2020): 2000256, https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.12.2000256.

(72) “Komplikationen,” Lungenärzte im Netz, https://www.lungenaerzte-im-netz.de/krankheiten/grippe/komplikationen.

(73) “103-jährige Italienerin erholt sich von COVID-19,” Donaukurier (Ingolstadt), updated April 16, 2020, video, https://www.donaukurier.de/nachrichten/panorama/103-jaehrige-Italienerin-erholt-sich-von-COVID- 19;art154670,4548023.

(74) Jason Oke and Carl Heneghan, “Global COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates,” Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, updated June 9, 2020, https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/global-covid-19-case-fatality-rates.

(75) “113-jährige Spanierin überlebt Coronavirus-Infektion,” GMX, May 13, 2020, https://www.gmx.net/magazine/panorama/113- jaehrigespanierin-ueberlebt-coronavirus-infektion-34698438.

(76) “SARS-CoV-2 Steckbrief zur Coronavirus-Krankheit-2019 (COVID-19),” Robert Koch-Institut, updated August 21, 2020, https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Steckbrief.html.

(77) “Amtliches Dashboard COVID19,” Bundesministerium für Soziales, Gesundheit, Pflege und Konsumentenschutz, https://info.gesundheitsministerium.at/dashboard_GenTod.html.

(78) “COVID-19 Daily Deaths,” National Health Service (UK), https://www.england.nhs.uk/statistics/statistical-workareas/ covid-19-daily-deaths.

(79) Kathryn A. Myers and Donald R. E. Farquhar, “Improving the Accuracy of Death Certification,” CMAJ 158, no. 10 (May 1998): 1317–23, https://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/158/10/1317.full.pdf.

(80) Sandy McDowell, “Understanding Cancer Death Rates,” American Cancer Society, January 25, 2019, https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/understanding-cancer-death-rates.html.

(81) Yoon K. Loke and Carl Heneghan, “Why No-One Can Ever Recover from COVID-19 in England—A Statistical Anomaly,” Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, July 16, 2020, https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/why-no-one-can-ever-recover-fromcovid- 19-in-england-a-statistical-anomaly.

(82) “Corona—Blog,” Krefeld, https://www.krefeld.de/de/inhalt/corona-aktuelle-meldungen/.

(83) Victor G. Puelles et al., “Multiorgan and Renal Tropism of SARS-CoV-2,” New England Journal of Medicine 383 (August 2020): 590–92, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2011400.

(84) David Bainton, Glynne R. Jones, and David Hole, “Influenza and Ischaemic Heart Disease—A Possible Trigger for Acute Myocardial Infarction?,” International Journal of Epidemiology 7, no. 3 (September 1978): 231– 39, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/7.3.231.

(85) Hiroshi Kido et al., “Role of Host Cellular Proteases in the Pathogenesis of Influenza and Influenza-Induced Multiple Organ Failure,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Proteins and Proteomics 1824, no. 1 (January 2012): 186– 94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2011.07.001.

(86) Debby van Riel, Rob Verdijk, and Thijs Kuiken, “The Olfactory Nerve: A Shortcut for Influenza and Other Viral Diseases into the Central Nervous System,” Journal of Pathology 235, no. 2 (January 2015): 277– 87, https://doi.org/10.1002/path.4461.

(87) Camilla Rothe et al., “Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany,” New England Journal of Medicine 382 (March 2020): 970–71, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001468.

(88) Kai Kupferschmidt, “Study Claiming New Coronavirus Can Be Transmitted by People without Symptoms Was Flawed,” Science, February 3, 2020, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/02/paper-non-symptomatic-patienttransmitting- coronavirus-wrong.

(89) Russell M. Viner et al., “School Closure and Management Practices During Coronavirus Outbreaks Including COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review,” Lancet 4, no. 5 (May 2020): 397–404, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30095-X.

(90) Pamela Dörhöfer, “Italien leidet unter dem Coronavirus: Sterberate ist erschreckend hoch,” Frankfurter Rundschau, April 14, 2020, https://www.fr.de/panorama/coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2-sterberate-italien-deutlich-hoeher-rest-welt-zr- 13604897.html.

(91) Ernesto Diffidenti, “Coronavirus, i contagiati reali in Italia sono almeno 100mila,” Il Sole 24 Ore (Milan), March 17, 2020, https://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/coronavirus-contagiati-realiin-italia-sono-almeno-100mila-ADnzowD.

(92) Kat Lay, “Coronavirus: Record Weekly Death Toll as Fearful Patients Avoid Hospitals,” Times (UK), April 15, 2020, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/coronavirus-record-weeklydeath-toll-as-fearful-patients-avoid-hospitalsbm73s2tw3.

(93) Paul Nuki, “Two New Waves of Deaths Are about to Break over the NHS, New Analysis Warns,” Telegraph, April 25, 2020, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/two-new-waves-deaths-break-nhs-new-analysiswarns.

(94) Ceylan Yeinsu, “N.H.S. Overwhelmed in Britain, Leaving Patients to Wait,” New York Times, January 3, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/03/world/europe/uk-national-health-service.html.

(95) Denis Campbell, “Health Services Overloaded Despite Support Pledges, Claims Report,” Guardian (US edition), May 20, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/may/21/health-services-overloaded-despite-support-pledges-claimsreport.

(96) Michael Savage, “NHS Winter Crisis Fears Grow after Thousands of EU Staff Quit,” Guardian (US edition), November 24, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/nov/24/nhs-winter-crisis-thousands-eu-staff-quit.

(97) Amanda MacMillan, “Hospitals Overwhelmed by Flu Patients Are Treating Them in Tents,” Time, January 18, 2018, https://time.com/5107984/hospitals-handling-burden-flupatients.

(98) Helen Branswell, “A Severe Flu Season Is Stretching Hospitals Thin. That Is a Very Bad Omen,” STAT, January 15, 2018, https://www.statnews.com/2018/01/15/flu-hospital-pandemics.

(99) “Coronavirus Fact-Check #1: ‘COVID19 Is Having an Unprecedented Impact on ICUs,” OffGuardian, April 2, 2020, https://off-guardian.org/2020/04/02/coronavirus-fact-check-1-flu-doesnt-overwhelm-our-hospitals.

(100) R. Salamanca, “La gripe colapsa los hospitales de media España,” El Mundo (Madrid), January 12, 2017, https://www.elmundo.es/ciencia/2017/01/12/58767cb4268e3e1f448b459a.html.

(101) Daniel Ventura, “¿Por qué la gripe significa colapso en los hospitales españoles?,” HuffPost (Spain edition), January 13, 2017, https://www.huffingtonpost.es/2017/01/13/gripe-colapsohospitales_n_14135402.html.

(102) Simona Ravizza, “Milano, terapie intensive al collasso per l’influenza: già 48 malati gravi molte operazioni rinviate,” Corriere della Sera (Milan), January 10, 2018, https://milano.corriere.it/notizie/cronaca/18_gennaio_10/milano-terapie-intensive-collasso-l-influenza-gia-48- malati-gravi-molte-operazioni-rinviate-c9dc43a6-f5d1-11e7-9b06-fe054c3be5b2.shtml.

(103) Christian Baars, “Mehr Tote durch resistente Keime,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), November 18, 2019, https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/antibiotika-keime-resistent-101.html.

(104) “Europäische Union: Altersstruktur in den Mitgliedsstaaten im Jahr 2019,” Statista, March 2020, https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/248981/umfrage/altersstruktur-in-den-eu-laendern.

(105) Savannah Blank, “Wieso sterben in Italien so viele an COVID-19 und wieso sind so viele infiziert?,” Südwest Presse (Ulm), April 30, 2020,https://www.swp.de/panorama/coronavirus-italien-aktuellwieso-sterben-in-italien-so-viele-an-coronawieso- hat-italiensoviele-infizierte-zahlen-tote-gruende-45080326.html.

(106) Stefania Boccia, Walter Ricciardi, and John P. A. Ioannidis, “What Other Countries Can Learn from Italy During the COVID-19 Pandemic,”JAMA Internal Medicine 180, no. 7 (July 2020): 927– 28, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1447.

(107) Paul Kreiner, “Beim Smog ist Italien das China Europas,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), December 2, 2015, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/gesellschaft/panorama/luftverschmutzung-beim-smog-ist-italiendaschinaeuropas/ 12668866.html.

(108) Marco Martuzzi et al., Health Impact of PM10 and Ozone in 13 Italian Cities (Copenhagen: World Health Organization, 2006), http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/91110/E88700.pdf.

(109) Daniel P. Croft et al., “The Association between Respiratory Infection and Air Pollution in the Setting of Air Quality Policy and Economic Change,” Annals of the American Thoracic Society 16, no. 3 (March 2019): https://doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201810-691OC.

(110) Xiao Wu et al., “Exposure to Air Pollution and COVID-19 Mortality in the United States: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study,” preprint,medRxiv, April 27, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.05.20054502.

(111) Susanne Pfaller and Matthias Lauer, “Trauer in Corona-Zeiten: Mehr Anzeigen und Feuerbestattungen,” Bayerischer Rundfunk, April 29, 2020,https://www.br.de/nachrichten/bayern/trauer-in-corona-zeitenmehr-anzeigen-undfeuerbestattungen, RxZCWs0.

(112) Katja Thorwarth, “New Yorker Notarzt über Corona-Krise in der Bronx: „Manchmal 200 Erkrankungen in einem Stockwerk,“” Frankfurter Rundschau, May 14, 2020, https://www.fr.de/politik/coronavirus-corona-krise-usanotarzt-lagenew- york-bronx-zr-13762623.html.

(113) Lucia De Franceschi et al., “Acute Hemolysis by Hydroxycloroquine Was Observed in G6PD-Deficient Patient with Severe COVID-19 Related Lung Injury,” European Journal of Internal Medicine 77 (July 2020): 136– 37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.04.020.

(114) “Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency,” Genetics Home Reference, National Institutes of Health, August 17, 2020, https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency#statistics.

(115) “Charité-Chefvirologe warnt vor dramatischer Corona-Welle im Herbst,” BZ (Berlin), updated April 1, 2020, https://www.bzberlin. de/berlin/charite-chefvirologe-warnt-vor-dramatischer-corona-welle-im-herbst.

(116) Dominik Straub, “Letalität in Deutschland 30-mal niedriger als in Italien – wie ist das möglich?,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), March 11, 2020,https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/coronavirus-in-europaletalitaet-in-deutschland-30-mal-niedriger-alsin- italien-wieistdas-moeglich/25626678.html.

(117) BMG, Twitter post, March 14, 2020, 6:55 a.m., https://twitter.com/bmg_bund/status/1238780849652465664.

(118) “Coronavirus Restrictions: What’s Closed (and What’s Open) in Germany?,” Local (German edition), updated March 20, 2020, https://www.thelocal.de/20200316/coronavirus-restrictions-whats-closed-and-whats-open-in-germany.

(119) John P. A. Ioannidis, “A Fiasco in the Making? As the Coronavirus Pandemic Takes Hold, We Are Making Decisions without Reliable Data,”STAT, March 17, 2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/a-fiasco-in-the-making-as-thecoronavirus- pandemic-takes-hold-we-are-making-decisions-without-reliable-data.

(120) Christian Baars, “Radikale Maßnahmen für viele Monate?,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), March 17, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/investigativ/ndr/coronavirus-studie-london-101.html.

(121) Matt Ridley and David Davis, “Is the Chilling Truth That the Decision to Impose Lockdown Was Based on Crude Mathematical Guesswork?,”Telegraph, May 10, 2020, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/10/chilling-truthdecision- impose-lockdown-based-crude-mathematical.

(122) “„Exponentielles Wachstum“: RKI mahnt eindringlich zum Abstandhalten,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Berlin), March 20, 2020, https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/111209/Exponentielles-Wachstum-RKI-mahnt-eindringlich-zum- Abstandhalten.

(123) Matthias an der Heiden and Udo Buchholz, Modellierung von Beispielszenarien der SARS-CoV-2-Epidemie 2020 in Deutschland, Robert Koch Institut, March 20, 2020, https://doi.org/10.25646/6571.2.

(124) “Deutsche Krankenhäuser nehmen COVID-19-Patienten aus Italien und Frankreich auf,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Berlin), March 24, 2020, https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/111286/Deutsche-Krankenhaeuser-nehmen-COVID-19- Patienten-aus-Italien-undFrankreich-auf.

(125) “„Verdopplungszeit“ zehn Tage—So weit ist Deutschland von Merkels Ziel entfernt,” Welt (Berlin), March 3, 2020, https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article206895285/Coronavirus-So-weit-ist-Deutschland-von-Merkels- Zielvorgabeentfernt.html.

(126) Ulrich Stoll and Christian Rohde, “Zwischen ‘schneller Kontrolle’ und ‘Anarchie,’” ZDF Heute (Mainz), March 31, 2020, https://www.zdf.de/nachrichten/politik/f21-corona-dokument-innenministerium-100.html.

(127) Thomas Steinmann, “Innenministerium warnt vor Wirtschaftscrash,” Capital (Hamburg), April 1, 2020, https://www.capital.de/wirtschaft-politik/innenministerium-warnt-vor-wirtschaftscrash.

(128) Matthias an der Heiden and Osamah Hamouda, “Schätzung der aktuellen Entwicklung der SARS-CoV-2-Epidemie in Deutschland—Nowcasting,” Epidemiologisches Bulletin 17, (April 2020): 10–16, https://doi.org/10.25646/6692.4.

(129) Christian Geinitz, “„In den Kliniken stehen Tausende Betten leer“,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, updated April 15, 2020, https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/fehlplanung-der-politikin-den-kliniken-stehen-betten-leer-16725981.html.

(130) Using Face Masks in the Community (Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2020), https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/COVID-19-use-face-masks-community.pdf.

(131) Samy Rengasamy, Benjamin Eimer, and Ronald E. Shaffer, “Simple Respiratory Protection—Evaluation of the Filtration Performance of Cloth Masks and Common Fabric Materials Against 20–1000 nm Size Particles,” Annals of Occupational Hygiene 54, no. 7 (October 2010): 789–98,https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meq044.

(132) C. Raina MacIntyre et al., “A Cluster Randomised Trial of Cloth Masks Compared with Medical Masks in Healthcare Workers,” BMJ Open 5, no. 4 (2015): e006577, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006577.

(133) “Advice on the Use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19,” World Health Organization, June 5, 2020, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-inhealthcare- settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak.

(134) Timo Mitze et al., Face Masks Considerably Reduce COVID-19 Cases in Germany: A Synthetic Control Method Approach (Bonn, Germ.: Institute of Labor Economics, 2020), http://ftp.iza.org/dp13319.pdf.

(135) Udo Buchholz, Silke Buda, and Kerstin Prahm, “Abrupter Rückgang der Raten an Atemwegserkrankungen in der deutschen Bevölkerung,”Epidemiologisches Bulletin 16 (April 2020): 7–9, https://doi.org/10.25646/6636.2.

(136) Denis G. Rancourt, “Masks Don’t Work: A Review of Science Relevant to COVID-19 Social Policy,” River Cities’ Reader (IA), June 11, 2020,https://www.rcreader.com/commentary/masks-dont-work-covid-a-review-of-science-relevantto- covide-19-social-policy.

(137) Pietro Vernazza, “Atemschutzmasken für alle—Medienhype oder unverzichtbar?,” Klinik für Infektiologie/Spitalhygiene, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, April 5, 2020, https://infekt.ch/2020/04/atemschutzmasken-fuer-alle-medienhype-oderunverzichtbar.

(138) Klaus Wedekind, “Drosten warnt vor zweiter Corona-Welle,” n-tv (Cologne), April 20, 2020, https://www.ntv. de/panorama/Drosten-warnt-vor-zweiter-Corona-Welle-article21726926.html.

(139) Joachim Czichos, “Erst Bakterien führten zur tödlichen Katastrophe,” Welt (Berlin), August 11, 2008, https://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article2295849/Erst-Bakterienfuehrten-zur-toedlichen-Katastrophe.html.

(140) Marie E. Killerby et al., “Human Coronavirus Circulation in the United States 2014–2017,” Journal of Clinical Virology 101 (April 2018): 52–56,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.01.019.

(141) Mika J. Mäkelä et al., “Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, no. 2 (February 1998): 539–42, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.36.2.539-542.1998.

(142) “Was Sie über die Grafik wissen sollten, über die Deutschland spricht,” Welt (Berlin), April 26, 2020, https://www.welt.de/wissenschaft/article207456203/Coronavirus-Stefan-Homburg-und-die-Grafik-ueber-die- Deutschlandspricht.html.

(143) “Virologe Drosten warnt: Deutsche könnten Corona-Vorsprung verspielen,” Stern, video, 1:04, April 23, 2020, https://www.stern.de/gesundheit/news-im-video–drosten-warnt—deutsche-koennten-coronavorsprungverspielen9236028.html.

(144) “RKI warnt in Coronavirus-Krise: Reproduktionszahl wieder über kritischem Wert 1,” MSN (Germany), May 10, 2020, https://www.msn.com/de-de/nachrichten/coronavirus/rkiwarnt-in-coronavirus-krise-reproduktionszahlwiederüberkritischem-wert-1/ar-BB13RlEi.

(145) “Sterbefallzahlen in Deutschland steigen an,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, April 30, 2020, https://www.sueddeutsche.de/gesundheit/coronavirenuebersterblichkeit-COVID-19-statistischesbundesamt-1.4893709.

(146) Jürgen Mladek, “Seehofer stellt Corona-Kritiker kalt,” Nordkurier (Neubrandenburg), May 14, 2020, https://www.nordkurier.de/politik-und-wirtschaft/seehofer-stellt-corona-kritiker-kalt-1439370305.html.

(147) Seth Flaxman et al., “Estimating the Effects of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions on COVID-19 in Europe,” Nature 584 (2020): 257–61, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2405-7.

(148) Comments section below Flaxman et al., “Estimating the Effects of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions,” https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2405-7#article-comments.

(149) “Why Is Denmark Not Recommending Face Masks to the Public?,” Local (Denmark), May 11, 2020, https://www.thelocal.dk/20200511/why-is-denmark-not-recommending-face-masks-to-the-public.

(150) Hildburg Bruns, “Berlins erste Corona-Klinik,” Bild (Berlin), May 11, 2020, https://www.bild.de/regional/berlin/berlinaktuell/ corona-klinik-in-berlin-fertig-knapp-500-betten-im-stand-by-modus-70577074.bild.html.

(151) Uwe Janssens, “„Wir haben genug Intensivbetten“,” interview by Arndt Reuning, Deutschlandfunk (Cologne), March 11, 2020, https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/corona-notfallplaene-inkrankenhaeusern-wirhabengenug. 676.de.html?dram:article_id=472287.

(152) “Überlastung deutscher Krankenhäuser durch COVID-19 laut Experten unwahrscheinlich,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt (Berlin), March 12, 2020, https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/111029/Ueberlastungdeutscher-Krankenhaeuser-durch-COVID- 19-lautExpertenunwahrscheinlich.

(153) Barbara Gillmann, “RKI: Zahl der Intensivbetten wird nicht reichen,” Handelsblatt (Düsseldorf), April 3, 2020, https://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/deutschland/corona-epidemie-rki-zahl-der-intensivbettenwirdnichtreichen/ 25712008.html?ticket=ST-3691123-xCgN9jb0yWPZsyeB97s7-ap5.

(154) Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat, Wie wir COVID-19 unter Kontrolle bekommen, March 2020, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/veroeffentlichungen/2020/corona/szenarienpapier-covid-19.pdf;jsessionid=8FAD89A1832ABFC4DB485C5625C8DE71.2_cid295?__blob=publicationFile&v=4.

(155) Elena Kuch, Jennifer Lange, and Christoph Prössl, “Kurzarbeit trotz Rettungsschirm,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), April 22, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/investigativ/ndr/krankenhaeuser-kurzarbeit-101.html.

(156) Kim Norvell and Jayne O’Donnell, “Thousands of US Medical Workers Furloughed, Laid Off as Routine Patient Visits Drop During Coronavirus Pandemic,” USA Today, updated April 2, 2020, https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2020/04/02/coronavirus-pandemic-jobs-us-health-careworkersfurloughedlaid-off/5102320002.

(157) Kit Knightly, “COVID19: Are Ventilators Killing People?,” OffGuardian, May 6, 2020, https://offguardian. org/2020/05/06/covid19-are-ventilators-killing-people.

(158) “COVID-19: Beatmung—und dann?,” DocCheck, March 31, 2020, https://www.doccheck.com/de/detail/articles/26271- COVID-19-beatmung-und-dann.

(159) Martin Gould, “EXCLUSIVE: ‘It’s a Horror Movie.’ Nurse Working on Coronavirus Frontline in New York Claims the City Is ‘Murdering’ COVID-19 Patients by Putting Them on Ventilators and Causing Trauma to the Lungs,” Daily Mail, updated May 14, 2020, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8262351/Nurse-New-York-claims-city-killing-COVID- 19-patientsputtingventilators.html.

(160) Jochen Taßler and Jan Schmitt, “Mehr Schaden als Nutzen?,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), April 30, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/investigativ/monitor/beatmung-101.html.

(161) “„Es wird zu häufig intubiert und invasiv beatmet“,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 7, 2020, https://www.vpneumo.de/fileadmin/pdf/f2004071.007_Voshaar.pdf.

(162) Kristin Kielon, “So Funktioniert Künstliche Beatmung,” Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (Leipzig), March 24, 2020, https://www.mdr.de/wissen/so-funktioniert-beatmung-intensivstation-corona-100.html.

(163) “Modes of Transmission of Virus Causing COVID-19: Implications for IPC Precaution Recommendations,” World Health Organization, March 29, 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-viruscausing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations.

(164) Neeltje van Doremalen et al., “Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1,” New England Journal of Medicine 382 (April 2020): 1564–67, https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973.

(165) Young-Il Kim et al., “Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets,” Cell Host & Microbe 27, no. 5 (May 2020): 704–9.e2,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023.

(166) Matthias Thöns, “„Sehr falsche Prioritäten gesetzt und alle ethischen Prinzipien verletzt“,” interview by Peter Sawicki, Deustchlandfunk, April 11, 2020, https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/palliativmedizinerzu-COVID-19-behandlungen-sehrfalsche.694.de.html?dram:article_id=474488.

(167) David L. Katz, “Is Our Fight against Coronavirus Worse Than the Disease?,” New York Times, March 20, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/20/opinion/coronaviruspandemic-social-distancing.html.

(168) CNN, “‘We are creating a catastrophic health care situation,’” Facebook post, video, 6:09, May 2, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10160799274796509.

(169) Scott W. Atlas, “The Data Is In—Stop the Panic and End the Total Isolation,” The Hill (Washington, DC), April 22, 2020, https://thehill.com/opinion/healthcare/494034-the-data-are-in-stop-the-panic-and-end-the-total-isolation.

(170) Robert Birnbaum and Georg Ismar, “Schäuble will dem Schutz des Lebens nicht alles unterordnen,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), April 26, 2020,https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/bundestagspraesident-zurcorona-kriseschaeuble-will-dem-schutz-des-lebens-nichtallesunterordnen/25770466.html.

(171) Miriam Kruse, “Menschenleben versus Menschenwürde?,” SWR Aktuell, April 27, 2020, https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/schaueble-wertediskussion-zu-corona-100.html.

(172) Andy Sumner, Chris Hoy, and Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez, “Estimates of the Impact of COVID-19 on Global Poverty,” (working paper, United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, 2020), https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/estimates-impact-covid-19-global-poverty.

(173) “Amerikas Wirtschaftsleistung sinkt um bis zu 30 Prozent,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, updated May 18, 2020, https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/usa-notenbank-federwartet-dramatischen-einbruch-der-wirtschaft- 16774864.html.

(174) Ines Zöttl, “US-Arbeitsmarkt in der Coronakrise: US-Arbeitsmarkt in der Coronakrise,” Spiegel (Hamburg), May 9, 2020, https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/corona-krise-in-den-usa-der-auftakt-der-tragoedie-a-532f7a6b-3a0d-4a8f-a38ddb91ead7990b.

(175) “EU vor Rezession von ‘historischem Ausmaß,” Tagesschau (Hamburg), May 6, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/wirtschaft/corona-eurozone-rezession-101.html.

(176) Benjamin Bidder, “‘Das wird ein Zangenangriff auf Deutschlands Wholstand,’” Spiegel (Hamburg), May 17, 2020, https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/corona-krise-das-wird-ein-zangenangriff-auf-deutschlands-wohlstand-aeaf27caa-342d-4aca-bcb1-e84b15ca5a2d.

(177) Britta Beeger, “Warum die Arbeitslosigkeit steigt,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, May 4, 2020, https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/corona-krise-warum-die-arbeitslosigkeit-in-deutschland-steigt-16753941.html.

(178) “Kampf gegen Corona: Größtes Hilfspaket in der Geschichte Deutschlands,” Bundesministerium der Finanzen, May 22, 2020, https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Corona-Schutzschild/2020-03-13-Milliarden-Schutzschild-fuer-Deutschland.html.

(179) Mallory Simon, “75,000 Americans at Risk of Dying from Overdose or Suicide Due to Coronavirus Despair, Group Warns,” CTV News (Ottawa), May 8, 2020, https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/75-000-americans-at-risk-ofdying-from-overdose-or-suicide-due-to-coronavirus-despair-group-warns-1.4930801.

(180) Agence France-Presse, “Australia Fears Suicide Spike Due to Virus Shutdown,” Telegraph, May 7, 2020, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/07/australia-fears-suicide-spike-due-virus-shutdown.

(181) “Mehr Tote durch Schlaganfälle, Infarkte und Suizide erwartet,” BZ (Berlin), May 7, 2020, https://www.bzberlin. de/ratgeber/coronavirus-lockdown-mehr-tote-durch-schlaganfaelle-infarkte-und-suizide-erwartet.

(182) Catharine Paddock, “Heart Attack Risk Higher with Job Loss,” Medical News Today, November 20, 2012, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/252985.

(183) Hinnerk Feldwisch-Drentrup, “Warum in der Coronakrise nicht nur das Virus die Gesundheit gefährdet,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), May 16, 2020, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/die-gesundheitlichenfolgen-des-lockdownsjetzt-sind-es-30-prozentwenigerherzinfarkte-doch-spaeter-werden-es-wohl-mehr/25834148.html.

(184) COVIDSurg Collaborative, “Elective Surgery Cancellations Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Global Predictive Modelling to Inform Surgical Recovery Plans,” British Journal of Surgery, May 12, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11746.

(185) “Anzahl der Sterbefälle in Deutschland nach Altersgruppe im Jahr 2018,” Statista, May 2020, https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/1013307/umfrage/sterbefaelle-in-deutschland-nach-alter.

(186) MarieLuise Dr. Stiefel et al., “Corona: Schützen Sie uns Ältere nicht um diesen Preis! Selbstbestimmt altern und sterben!” Change.org, PBC,https://www.change.org/p/bundeskanzlerin-corona-sch%C3%BCtzen-sie-%C3%A4lterenicht- um-diesen-preis-selbstbestimmt-altern-und-sterben.

(187) “UNICEF: Höhere risiken für Kinder wegen Massnahmen zur eindämmung des Coronavirus,” UNICEF, March 23, 2020, https://www.unicef.de/informieren/aktuelles/presse/2020/risiken-fuer-kinder-bei-eindaemmung-descoronavirus/213060.

(188) Peter Dabrock, “„Kinder brauchen andere Kinder“,” interview by Anke Schaefer, Deutschlandfunk Kultur (Berlin), April 14, 2020, https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/sozialethiker-kritisiertlangekitaschliessungenkinder. 1008.de.html?dram:article_id=474595.

(189) “Deutschlands Lehrer-Chef: ‘Ein Viertel aller Schüler abgehängt,” Focus, May 8, 2020, https://www.focus.de/familie/eltern/meidinger-zuschulschliessungen-deutschlands-lehrer-chef-ein-viertelallerschuelerabgehaengt_id_11878788.html.

(190) Sue Odenthal and Martina Morawietz, “‘Wir sind extrem blind im Kinderschutz,’” ZDF Heute (Mainz), April 28, 2020, https://www.zdf.de/nachrichten/panorama/coronavirus-kinderschutz-jugendamt-100.html.

(191) Christoph Hein, “Auf Corona folgt der Hunger,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, April 22, 2020, https://www.faz.net/aktuell/wirtschaft/un-warnt-auf-coronafolgt-die-hungersnot-16736443.html.

(192) Leslie Roberts, “Why Measles Deaths Are Surging—and Coronavirus Could Make It Worse,” Nature, updated April 9, 2020, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01011-6.

(193) Stefan Homburg, “Warum Deutschlands Lockdown falsch ist—und Schweden vieles besser macht,” Welt (Berlin), April 15, 2020, https://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/plus207258427/Schwedenals-Vorbild-Finanzwissenschaftler-gegen-CoronaLockdown.html?ticket=ST-A-1309422-NghISRcCkH30TuFUa0V5-ssosignin-server.

(194) Johan Giesecke, “„Lockdown verschiebt Tote in die Zukunft“,” interview by Johannes Perterer, Addendum, Quo Vadis Veritas, April 24, 2020,https://www.addendum.org/coronavirus/interview-johan-giesecke.

(195) André Anwar, “WHO lobt Sonderweg: Können wir vom Modell Schweden lernen?,” Augsburger Allgemeine, May 5, 2020, https://www.augsburger-allgemeine.de/panorama/WHO-lobt-Sonderweg-Koennen-wir-vom-Modell-Schwedenlernenid57329376.html.

(196) “Ende der Pandemie? Neue Zahlen widersprechen Regierungs-Linie- Punkt.PRERADOVIC mit Prof. Homburg,” YouTube video, 16:17, interview by Punkt Preradovic, May 4, 2020, posted by “Punkt.PRERADOVIC,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WFkMIlKyHoI.

(197) “Wo die Coronavirus-Pandemie ohne Lockdown bewältigt wird,” Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), April 18, 2020, https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wissen/von-hongkong-lernenwo-die-coronavirus-pandemie-ohnelockdownbewaeltigtwird/25752346.html.

(198) Gearoid Reidy, “Japan Was Expecting a Coronavirus Explosion. Where Is It?,” Japan Times, March 20, 2020, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/03/20/national/coronavirus-explosion-expected-japan/.

(199) Aria Bendix, “South Korea Has Tested 140,000 People for the Coronavirus. That Could Explain Why Its Death Rate Is Just 0.6%—Far Lower Than in China or the US,” Business Insider, March 5, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/south-korea-coronavirus-testing-death-rate-2020-3.

(200) Non-Pharmaceutical Public Health Measures for Mitigating the Risk and Impact of Epidemic and Pandemic Influenza (World Health Organization, 2019), https://www.who.int/influenza/publications/public_health_measures/publication/en.

(201) “Nobel Prize Winning Scientist Prof Michael Levitt: Lockdown Is a ‘Huge Mistake,’” YouTube video, 34:33, interview by UnHerd, posted by “UnHerd,” May 2, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl-sZdfLcEk.

(202) Adelina Comas-Herrera et al., Mortality Associated with COVID-19 Outbreaks in Care Homes: Early International Evidence, LTC Covid, updated June 26, 2020, https://ltccovid.org/2020/04/12/mortality-associated-with-covid-19- outbreaks-in-care-homes-early-international-evidence.

(203) avstoesser, “Falsche Prioritäten gesetzt und ethische Prinzipien verletzt,” Pflegeethik Initiative, Deutschland e.V., April 15, 2020, http://pflegeethik-initiative.de/2020/04/15/corona-krise-falsche-prioritaeten-gesetzt-und-ethische-prinzipienverletzt.

(204) “‘No Second Wave’ Despite Record Surge in New COVID-19 Cases, Says Czech Minister,” Kafkadesk, June 29, 2020, https://kafkadesk.org/2020/06/29/no-second-wave-despite-record-surge-in-new-covid-19-cases-says-czechminister.

(205) “Mandatory Face Masks Should Not Pose Problems, Says Swiss Train Boss,” Swissinfo (Bern), July 3, 2020, https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/mandatory-face-masks-should-not-pose-problems–says-swiss-train-boss/45879254.

(206) Daland Segler, “„Anne Will“: Wie hart trifft uns die „neue Normalität“?,” Frankfurter Rundschau, May 29, 2020, https://www.fr.de/kultur/tv-kino/corona-talk-anne-will-ardhart-trifft-neue-normalitaet-zr-13667631.html.

(207) “Corona-Folgen bekämpfen, Wohlstand sichern, Zukunftsfähigkeit stärken,” Federal Ministry of Finance (Germany), June 3, 2020, https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Standardartikel/Themen/Schlaglichter/Konjunkturpaket/202 0-06-03-eckpunktepapier.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=10.

(208) “‘Es braucht eine globale Anstrengung,’” Tagesschau (Hamburg), April 12, 2020, https://www.tagesschau.de/ausland/gatescorona- 101.html.

(209) Jincun Zhao et al., “Airway Memory CD4+ T Cells Mediate Protective Immunity against Emerging Respiratory Coronaviruses,” Immunity 44, no. 6 (June 2016): 1379–91, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2016.05.006.

(210) Annika Nelde et al., “SARS-CoV-2 T-cell Epitopes Define Heterologous and COVID-19-Induced T-Cell Recognition,” preprint, posted June 17, 2020, https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-35331/v1.

(211) Alba Grifoni et al., “Targets of T-Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals,”Cell 181, no. 7 (June 2020): 1489–501.e15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015.

(212) Takuya Sekine et al., “Robust T Cell Immunity in Convalescent Individuals with Asymptomatic or Mild COVID-19,” Cell, (August 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.017.

(213) Barry Rockx et al., “Comparative Pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a Nonhuman Primate Model,” Science 368, no. 6494 (May 2020): 1012–15, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb7314.

(214) Shibo Jiang, “Don’t Rush to Deploy COVID-19 Vaccines and Drugs without Sufficient Safety Guarantees,” Nature 579 (2020): 321, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00751-9.

(215) Sanjay Kumar, “Scientists Scoff at Indian Agency’s Plan to Have COVID-19 Vaccine Ready for Use Next Month,” Science, July 6, 2020, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/07/scientists-scoff-indian-agencys-plan-have-COVID-19-vaccineready-use-next-month.

(216) “COVID-19-Impfstoff: Antworten auf häufig gestellte Fragen (FAQ),” Robert Koch Institut, last accessed August 27, 2020, https://www.rki.de/SharedDocs/FAQ/COVID-Impfen/COVID-19-Impfen.html.

(217) Michael Barry, “Single-Cycle Adenovirus Vectors in the Current Vaccine Landscape,” Expert Review of Vaccines 17, no. 2 (2018): 163–73,https://doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2018.1419067.

(218) Ewen Callaway, “The Race for Coronavirus Vaccines: A Graphical Guide,” Nature 580 (April 2020): 576– 77, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-01221-y.

(219) Barney S. Graham, “Rapid COVID-19 Vaccine Development,” Science 368, no. 6494 (May 2020): 945– 46, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8923.

(220) Vincent A. Fulginiti et al., “Altered Reactivity to Measles Virus: Atypical Measles in Children Previously Immunized with Inactivated Measles Virus Vaccines,” JAMA 202, no. 12 (December 1967): 1075–80, https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1967.03130250057008.

(221) Hyun Wha Kim et al., “Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Infants Despite Prior Administration of Antigenic Inactivated Vaccine,” American Journal of Epidemiology 89, no. 4 (April 1969): 422–34, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a120955.

(222) Cara C. Burns et al., “Multiple Independent Emergences of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses during a Large Outbreak in Northern Nigeria,”Journal of Virology 87, no. 9 (April 2013): 4907–22, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02954-12.

(223) Z. Wang et al., “Detection of Integration of Plasmid DNA into Host Genomic DNA Following Intramuscular Injection and Electroporation,” Gene Therapy 11 (April 2004): 711–21, https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3302213.

(224) Barbara Langer et al., “Safety Assessment of Biolistic DNA Vaccination,” Biolistic DNA Delivery 940 (2013): 371–88, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-110-3_27.

(225) Norbert Pardi et al., “mRNA Vaccines—A New Era in Vaccinology,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 17, (2018): 261–79, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2017.243.

(226) Peter Doshi, “The Elusive Definition of Pandemic Influenza,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 89, no. 7 (July 2011): 532–38, https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.11.086173.

(227) Andreas Zumach, “Der verhängnisvolle Einfluss der Pharmakonzerne,” interview by Dieter Kassel, Deutschlandfunk Kultur (Berlin), May 16, 2017, https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/weltgesundheitsorganisationderverhaengnisvolleeinfluss. 1008.de.html?dram:article_id=386282.

(228) Carsten Schroeder, “Schweinegrippe: Die Ruhe vor dem Sturm,” Deutschlandfunk (Cologne), December 15, 2009, https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/schweinegrippe-die-ruhe-vor-dem-sturm.709.de.html?dram:article_id=88702.

(229) “Kanzlerin und Minister sollen speziellen Impfstoff erhalten,” Spiegel, October 17, 2009, https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/schutz-vorschweinegrippe-kanzlerin-und-minister-sollenspeziellenimpfstofferhalten-a-655764.html.

(230) Michael Fumento, “Why the WHO Faked a Pandemic,” Forbes, February 5, 2010, https://www.forbes.com/2010/02/05/world-health-organization-swine-flu-pandemic-opinions-contributors-michaelfumento.html.

(231) Clare Dyer, “UK Vaccine Damage Scheme Must Pay £120 000 to Boy Who Developed Narcolepsy after Swine Flu Vaccination,” BMJ 350 (2015): h3205, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3205.

(232) S. Sohail Ahmed et al., “Narcolepsy, 2009 A(H1N1) Pandemic Influenza, and Pandemic Influenza Vaccinations: What Is Known and Unknown about the Neurological Disorder, the Role for Autoimmunity, and Vaccine Adjuvants,” Journal of Autoimmunity 50 (May 2014): 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2014.01.033.

(233) Urs P. Gasche, “Corona: Medien verbreiten weiter unbeirrt statistischen Unsinn,” Infosperber, April 26, 2020, https://www.infosperber.ch/Artikel/Medien/Corona-Medien-verbreiten-weiter-unbeirrt-statistischen-Unsinn.

(234) Michael Scheppe, “Risikoforscher erklärt: Das können wir gegen die Angst vor dem Coronavirus tun,” Handelsblatt (Düsseldorf), March 10, 2020, https://www.handelsblatt.com/technik/medizin/gerdgigerenzer-iminterview-risikoforscher-erklaert-das-koennenwirgegen-die-angst-vor-dem-coronavirus-tun/25624846.html.

(235) Christof Kuhbandner, “Von der fehlenden wissenschaftlichen Begründung der Corona-Maßnahmen,” Telepolis, April 25, 2020, https://www.heise.de/tp/features/Von-der-fehlenden-wissenschaftlichen-Begruendung-der-Corona-Massnahmen-4709563.html.

(236) “12 Experts Questioning the Coronavirus Panic,” OffGuardian, March 24, 2020, https://off-guardian.org/2020/03/24/12-experts-questioning-the-coronavirus-panic.

(237) “10 MORE Experts Criticising the Coronavirus Panic,” OffGuardian, March 28, 2020, https://offguardian.org/2020/03/28/10-more-experts-criticising-the-coronavirus-panic.

(238) “Kritik an Corona-Berichterstattung der öffentlich-rechtlichen Medien,” Radio Dreyeckland, March 27, 2020, https://rdl.de/beitrag/kritik-corona-berichterstattung-der-ffentlich-rechtlichen-medien.

(239) Nils Metzger, “Warum Sucharit Bhakdis Zahlen falsch sind,” ZDF Heute (Mainz), March 23, 2020, https://www.zdf.de/nachrichten/panorama/coronavirus-faktencheck-bhakdi-100.html.

(240) Charlie Wood, “YouTube’s CEO Suggested Content That ‘Goes Against’ WHO Guidance on the Coronavirus Will Get Banned,” Business Insider, April 23, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/youtube-will-ban-anything-against-whoguidance-2020-4.

(241) John Oxford, “A View from the HVIVO / Open Orphan #ORPH Laboratory—Professor John Oxford,” Novus Communications, March 31, 2020,https://novuscomms.com/2020/03/31/a-view-from-the-hvivo-open-orphan-orphlaboratory-professor-john-oxford.

(242) Rainer Radtke, “Anzahl der Todesfälle nach den häufigsten Todesursachen in Deutschland in den Jahren 2016 bis 2018,” Statista, August 13, 2020, https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/158441/umfrage/anzahl-der-todesfaelle-nachtodesursachen.

(243) “Österreich: Regierungsexperten waren gegen Corona-Lockdown,” RT (Germany), May 14, 2020, https://deutsch.rt.com/europa/102434-osterreich-expertenwaren-gegen-lockdown.

(244) “Dirk Müller: So schlimm wird es NOCH – und wer dahinter steckt! // Mission Money,” YouTube video, 1:00:27, posted by “Mission Money,” March 26, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gf4y0HoEkCU.

(245) Stefan Homburg, “Finanz-Professor: „Das ist das größte Umverteilungsprogramm in Friedenszeiten“,” interview, Rundblick, April 2, 2020, https://www.rundblick-niedersachsen.de/finanz-professor-das-ist-das-groesste-umverteilungsprogramm-infriedenszeiten.

(246) Rubikons Weltredaktion, “Der Corona-Totalitarismus,” Rubikon, March 30, 2020, https://www.rubikon.news/artikel/dercorona- totalitarismus.

Sobre los autores

Karina Reiss nació en Alemania y estudió biología en la Universidad de Kiel, donde recibió su doctorado en 2001. Se convirtió en profesora adjunta en 2006 y profesora asociada en 2008 en la Universidad de Kiel. Ha publicado más de sesenta artículos en los campos de la biología celular, la bioquímica, la inflamación y la infección, que han sido reconocidos internacionalmente y han recibido prestigiosos honores y premios.

Sucharit Bhakdi nació en Washington, DC, y se educó en escuelas de Suiza, Egipto y Tailandia. Estudió medicina en la Universidad de Bonn en Alemania, donde recibió su doctorado en 1970. Fue investigador posdoctoral en el Instituto Max Planck de Inmunobiología y Epigenética de Friburgo de 1972 a 1976, y en el Laboratorio de Proteínas de Copenhague de 1976 a 1977. Se incorporó al Instituto de Microbiología Médica de la Universidad de Giessen en 1977 y fue nombrado profesor adjunto en 1982. Fue nombrado presidente de Microbiología Médica en la Universidad de Mainz en 1990, donde permaneció hasta su jubilación en 2012. El Dr. Bhakdi ha publicado más de trescientos artículos en los ámbitos de la inmunología, la bacteriología, la virología y la parasitología, por los que ha recibido numerosos premios y la Orden al Mérito de Renania-Palatinado. Sucharit Bhakdi y su esposa, Karina Reiss, viven con su hijo de tres años, Jonathan Atsadjan, en una pequeña aldea cerca de la ciudad de Kiel.


Aquí puedes ver y descargarte el PDF de este artículo de Karina Reis y Sucharit B.